Mustafa İsmet İnönü
In 1922-1924, he was also the first head of the General Staff and, upon proclamation of a republic, the first Prime Minister serving three terms: from 1923 to 1965. As President, he received the official title of "Millî Şef" (Head of the Nation). He fought in the Greek-Turkish war in 1919-1922. In 1943, he took part in the second conference in Cairo, Egypt, with the participation of Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, with the aim of considering Turkey’s involvement in the Second World War (Turkey maintained neutrality during the war) and the creation of a second front in the Balkans. As a consequence of negotiations with Western allies, Mustafa İsmet İnönü declared war on Germany and Japan and allowed the transport of military aid from the West to the Soviet Union through Turkish channels – the Dardanelles and Bosporus.