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What does a document do? Contextual information as an antidote for disinformation and manipulation

Documents of any type (written, visual, audio-visual, etc.) provide important access to an understanding of past and present reality. However, they never literally reflect such reality, but are always biased: their author produces a document from a specific perspective (gender, socio-economic, cultural or political) for a certain target audience with a certain goal in mind. A document therefore not only says something, but also wants to do something – that cannot be found literally in the document. In order to analyse, interpret and understand a document properly, information about its context of origin and author is indispensable. A real document can otherwise lead to disinformation or even to manipulation.

Disinformation and Fake News Versus Interpretational Disputes in History and Conflicts of Memory

America's Countering Soviet Disinformation in the 1980s