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09 November 1989

9 November: Opening of the Berlin Wall and thus of the border between the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR

Encouraged by the Soviet Union’s reform policies, East German citizens also start to protest. The mass exodus of GDR citizens via Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and the Leipzig Monday demonstrations place the state leadership under enormous pressure. In a press conference misunderstanding, SED party official Günther Schabowski announces the immediate introduction of freedom of movement for GDR citizens. Thousands throng straight the border crossings in Berlin. The Wall has fallen.

01 October 1989

Fall of communist regimes In East-Central Europe

16 November 1989

Spontaneous demonstration by Bratislava university students for basic civil rights and freedoms