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Belle époque

01 January 1905

Revolution in Russia and on Polish territory

02 June 1907

Apponyi´s school laws

27 October 1907

27 October: Shooting in Černová

29 June 1913

Romania’s participation to the Balkan Wars

The First World War

28 June 1914

Assassination in Sarajevo

28 July 1914

28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918 First World War

28 July 1914

The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy Declares War on Serbia 28 July 1914

01 August 1914

By marching into Luxemburg, the German Empire begins the First World War

08 August 1914

Poles active in combat during the First World War

22 October 1915

Cleveland Agreement, 22 October 1915

17 April 1916

Romania’s participation in the First World War

05 November 1916

Act of 5 November 1916

23 February 1917

February and October (Bolshevik) Revolutions in Russia

08 March 1917

The Russian Revolution

09 April 1917

9. April: With German support, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin travels to Russia

09 April 1918

Bessarabia, Bukovina, Transylvania and Banat unite with Romania

30 October 1918

The Martin Declaration

30 October 1918

The Outbreak of the Chrysanthemum Revolution

09 November 1918

9 November: Philipp Scheidemann (the Social Democratic Party of Germany) proclaims the German Republic

11 November 1918

11 November: Poland regains independence

The interwar period

01 January 1919

Fights for the borders of the Second Polish Republic

21 March 1919

Declaration of the Hungarian Soviet Republic

28 June 1919

28 June: Signing of the Versailles Peace Treaty

18 April 1920

First democratic parliamentary election

04 June 1920

Trianon borders

04 June 1920

Hungary Signs the Treaty of Trianon

13 August 1920

Battle of Warsaw

28 October 1920

The Paris Peace Conference and its consequences

17 March 1921

March Constitution

22 January 1922

First proposal for Slovak autonomy

11 January 1923

11 January: Beginning of the Occupation of the Ruhr

27 March 1923

Consolidation of the Great Union. The Constitution and the internal legislation

09 November 1923

9 November: Hitler unsuccessfully attempts to gain power in a putsch

01 April 1924

Grabski’s treasury and currency reform

03 November 1924

Władysław Reymont receives Nobel Prize for Literature

01 February 1926

Construction of the sea port in Gdynia

26 March 1926

Romania’s Alliances: the Treaties with Poland, France and Italy.

26 March 1926

Romania’s collective alliances – The Little Entente and the Balkan Pact.

01 May 1926

May coup d’état

01 January 1927

A New Form of Currency, the Pengő, is introduced

24 October 1929

World economic crisis in Slovakia, 1929 – 1935

24 October 1929

24 October: beginning of the Great Crisis

08 June 1930

1919-1938. Romania’s internal affairs and culture in the interwar period

24 August 1931

István Bethlen resigns as Prime Minister

25 June 1932

Meeting of the young generation of Slovakia 25–26 June 1932

25 October 1932

Gyula Gömbös Proclaims the ‘Self-Contained Hungarian State’

30 January 1933

30 January: President of the Reich, Paul von Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany

08 June 1934

The evolution of Romanian-Soviet relations

15 September 1935

15 September: Proclamation of the Nuremberg Laws (‘Nürnberger Gesetze’) at the Nazi Party Rally (‘Reichsparteitag’)

30 May 1936

The first Congress of Slovak writers, 31 May – 1 June 1936

29 May 1938

The first anti-Jewish decree comes in effect

29 September 1938

29 September: Signing of the Munich Agreement (‘Münchner Abkommen’)

06 October 1938

Declaration of Slovak autonomy, 6 October 1938

02 November 1938

Hungary’s territory is revised after the First Vienna Award

08 November 1938

8-10 November: Organised pogroms against the German Jewish population

The Second World War

01 February 1939

Poles fight on the fronts of the Second World War 1939-1945

14 March 1939

Establishment of the Slovak State

23 August 1939

23 August: Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

23 August 1939

23 August: Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact concluded by the Third Reich and USSR

23 August 1939

The Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact and its importance

01 September 1939

Entry of Slovakia into the war against Poland

01 September 1939

1 September: Germany begins the Second World War with its invasion of Poland

01 September 1939

Poland assaulted from both sides

17 September 1939

The Polish government, gold reserves and refugees in Romania.

10 April 1940

April 1940: Katyn massacre

28 June 1940

Romania’s territorial losses

22 June 1941

22 June: With the invasion of the Soviet Union, Hitler starts the racist war of extermination for ‘Lebensraum’ in the East

22 June 1941

1941-1944. The Second World War. Romania on Germany’s side

26 June 1941

Unidentified Aircraft Bomb Košice: Hungary Enters World War Two

20 January 1942

20 January: Meeting of the ‘Wannsee Conference’

25 March 1942

The deportation of Slovak Jews begins

02 July 1942

Establishment of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Arts

12 January 1943

The Second Hungarian Army Is Decimated at the River Don

19 April 1943

Uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto

19 March 1944

Germany Occupies Hungary

20 July 1944

20 July: Conspirators linked with Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg attempt to overthrow the Nazi dictatorship

01 August 1944

1 August – 3 October: Warsaw Uprising

23 August 1944

23 August 1944. Its internal and external consequences

24 August 1944

24 August 1944 – 9 May 1945. Romania’s participation in the anti-Nazi war, alongside the Allied Coalition.

29 August 1944

Military uprising in Slovakia

12 September 1944

Signing of the Truce between Romania and the United Nations.

09 October 1944

The Moscow Percentages Agreement

15 October 1944

Szálasi Announces Continuing the War on the Side of Germany

Communism

27 January 1945

27 January: Auschwitz is liberated by Soviet troops

04 February 1945

4-11 February 1945. The Yalta Conference and its consequences

04 February 1945

4-11 February: Yalta conference

06 March 1945

Formation of the Petru Groza government and the beginning of Romania’s communization

04 April 1945

A Soviet Announcement Declares the Occupation of Hungary’s Territory

05 April 1945

The first governmental programme of renewed Czechoslovakia

07 May 1945

7-8 May: Capitulation of the German Wehrmacht Armed Forces

17 June 1945

Trial of the Sixteen

26 May 1946

Parliamentary election

01 August 1946

The Forint Is Introduced (August 1, 1946)

01 October 1946

1 October: Delivery of judgements against the main war criminals in the Nuremberg Trials (Nürnberger Prozess)

10 February 1947

Hungary Signs the Peace Treaty of Paris (February 10, 1947)

01 June 1947

The Marshall Plan

01 June 1947

Communists Take Over after Ousting Prime Minister Ferenc Nagy

30 December 1947

Proclamation of the Romanian Popular Republic

01 January 1948

Anticommunist armed resistance

25 February 1948

February state coup d´état

30 May 1948

Parliamentary election with a united list of candidates

11 June 1948

Nationalization of enterprises

05 January 1949

Romania’s activity within COMECON

03 March 1949

Collectivization of agriculture

24 May 1949

24 May: Proclamation of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany (‘Grundgesetzes der Bundesrepublik Deutschland’)

20 August 1949

Hungary’s Stalinist Constitution Comes into Effect

07 October 1949

7 October: The German Democratic Republic – GDR (‘Deutsche Demokratische Republik’ – DDR) is established

15 January 1951

Court trial of Catholic bishops

17 June 1953

17 June: The People’s Uprising in East Berlin and the GDR is violently suppressed

04 July 1953

Prime Minister Imre Nagy Calls for ‘New Stage’ Politics

25 November 1953

The Hungarian National Football Team Defeats Great Britain at Wembley, 6:3

04 June 1954

4 July: Germany becomes football world champion for the first time

14 May 1955

Romania and the Warsaw Treaty

14 May 1955

14 May: Warsaw Pact established

28 June 1956

June 1956: Poznań protests

23 October 1956

Romania and the Hungarian Revolution

23 October 1956

The Hungarian Revolution Breaks Out in Budapest

04 November 1956

The Soviet Army Launches Its Invasion to Suppress the Hungarian Revolution

13 August 1961

13 August: Building of the Berlin Wall

23 January 1963

23 January: Konrad Adenauer and Charles de Gaulle sign the German-French Treaty of Friendship

21 March 1963

János Kádár Proclaims General Amnesty

22 March 1965

Romania’s internal policy during the Nicolae Ceausescu regime

03 May 1966

3 May: festive observance of the millennial anniversary of Poland’s baptism

02 June 1967

2 June: The death of the student Benno Ohnesorg

05 September 1967

First year of the international Biennial of Illustration Bratislava

01 January 1968

The “New Economic Mechanism” Is Implemented

05 January 1968

Start of renewal process

08 March 1968

1968

08 March 1968

March 1968 events

20 August 1968

Romania’s attitude towards the “Prague Spring”

21 August 1968

Invasion of Warsaw Pact troops, 20 – 21 August 1968

27 October 1968

Act of Federalisation of Czechoslovakia

17 April 1969

Gustáv Husák leads the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

28 October 1969

28 October: Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt leads the first social-liberal coalition

19 June 1970

Preparatory meeting of the Slovak World Congress, 19 – 21 June 1970

07 December 1970

Willy Brandt kneels before a Holocaust monument in Warsaw (Brandt’s ‘Kniefall von Warschau’)

14 December 1970

December 1970 protests

25 June 1976

June 1976: Protests in Radom and Ursus

17 October 1977

Night of 17 into 18 October: Suicide of RAF terrorists Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe in the Stuttgart-Stammheim jail

25 December 1977

Illyés’s Article on Hungarians Living Beyond National Borders Is Published

16 October 1978

16 October 1978: Cardinal Karol Wojtyła becomes Pope and assumes the name of John Paul II

16 October 1978

Pontificate of John Paul II

31 August 1980

Establishment of the Independent Self-Governing Trade Union ‘Solidarność’

13 December 1981

13 December: Martial law imposed

13 December 1981

The First Issue of Samizdat Publication, Beszélő [Speaker], Appears

29 March 1983

29 March: Entry of the ‘Greens’ (‘Grünen’ ) into the German Bundestag

25 March 1988

Candle demonstration

Transformation

04 June 1989

Fall of communism in Poland

11 September 1989

Hungary Opens Its Border to Austria

01 October 1989

Fall of communist regimes In East-Central Europe

09 November 1989

9 November: Opening of the Berlin Wall and thus of the border between the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR

16 November 1989

Spontaneous demonstration by Bratislava university students for basic civil rights and freedoms

25 March 1990

The First Free Elections Are Held

03 October 1990

The Reunification of Germany

19 June 1991

The Last Soviet Soldier Leaves Hungary’s Territory

26 December 1991

Dissolution of the USSR and German reunification

01 January 1993

Establishment of an independent Slovak Republic

12 March 1999

12 March: Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary become NATO members

12 March 1999

Expansion of NATO

12 March 1999

Hungary Becomes a Member State of NATO