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Belle époque

01 January 1900

The Czechs in Austria-Hungary (1900-1914)

14 May 1900

Olympic Games in Paris and changes in women’s status

01 January 1905

Revolution in Russia and Polish territory

17 October 1905

Revolution in Russia

02 June 1907

Apponyi´s school laws

31 August 1907

Two European coalitions

27 October 1907

27 October: Shooting in Černová

The First World War

01 January 1914

Relations between Czechs and Germans in Czech lands (1848-1914)

28 June 1914

Assassination in Sarajevo

28 June 1914

Assassination in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 and consequences

28 July 1914

28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918 First World War, also known as the ‘Great War’

28 July 1914

28 July 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy Declares War on Serbia

28 July 1914

Declaration of the First World War, mobilization, international activities of T. G. Masaryk (1914-1918)

01 August 1914

By marching into Luxemburg, the German Empire begins the First World War

08 August 1914

Poles active in combat during the First World War

22 October 1915

Cleveland Agreement, 22 October 1915

05 November 1916

Act of 5 November 1916

01 February 1917

February and October (Bolshevik) Revolutions in Russia

01 February 1917

Bolshevik revolution in Petrograd

09 April 1917

9. April: With German support, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin travels to Russia

02 July 1917

2 July: Battle of Zborov, Czechoslovak Legions

01 January 1918

Culture and art of the First Republic (1918-1938)

08 June 1918

1918-1939: Culture and science develop in the Second Republic

28 October 1918

The origin of independent Czechoslovakia (28 October 1918)

30 October 1918

30 October: The Martin Declaration

30 October 1918

The Outbreak of the Chrysanthemum Revolution (October 30, 1918)

30 October 1918

30 October: Martin Declaration

09 November 1918

9 November: Philipp Scheidemann (SPD) proclaims the German Republic

11 November 1918

11 November: Poland regains independence

11 November 1918

Armistice in Compiègne

14 November 1918

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, president – liberator (1850-1937)

The interwar period

01 January 1919

Fights for the borders of the Second Polish Republic

21 March 1919

Declaration of the Hungarian Soviet Republic (March 21, 1919)

28 June 1919

Treaty of Versailles

28 June 1919

28 June: Signing of the Versailles Peace Treaty

10 September 1919

10 September: Confirmation of Czechoslovak borders by the Peace Treaty of Saint-Germain

18 April 1920

First democratic parliamentary election, 18 April 1920

04 June 1920

Trianon borders, 4 April 1920

04 June 1920

Hungary Signs the Treaty of Trianon (June 4, 1920)

13 August 1920

Battle of Warsaw

15 August 1920

Battle of Warsaw

17 March 1921

March Constitution

22 January 1922

First proposal for Slovak autonomy, 22 January 1922

11 January 1923

11 January: Beginning of the ‘Occupation of the Ruhr’

09 November 1923

9 November: Hitler unsuccessfully attempts to gain power in a putsch

05 October 1925

Locarno treaty

01 February 1926

Construction of the sea port in Gdynia

01 May 1926

May coup d’état

01 January 1927

A New Form of Currency, the Pengő, Is Introduced (January 1, 1927)

01 January 1929

World economic crisis in Slovakia, 1929 – 1935

24 October 1929

24 October: beginning of the Great Crisis

24 October 1929

24 October: World Economic Crisis; its consequences for Czechoslovakia

24 August 1931

István Bethlen Resigns as Prime Minister (August 24, 1931)

25 June 1932

Meeting of young generation of Slovakia 25 – 26 June 1932

25 October 1932

Gyula Gömbös Proclaims the “Self-Contained Hungarian State” (October 25, 1932)

30 January 1933

Hitler rises to power

30 January 1933

30 January: President of the Reich, Paul von Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany

15 September 1935

15 September Proclamation of the ‘Nürnberger Gesetze’ (‘Nuremberg Laws’) at the NSDAP-‘Reichsparteitag’ (‘Nazi Party Rally’)

30 May 1936

The first Congress of Slovak writers, 31 May – 1 June 1936

01 January 1938

The Munich Agreement and borderland annexation (1938)

01 January 1938

The Second Republic and democratic decline (1938-1939)

29 May 1938

The First Anti-Jewish Decree Comes into Effect (May 29, 1938)

23 September 1938

Sudetenland crisis and its causes, negotiations with SdP, mobilization (1938)

29 September 1938

29 September: Signing of the ‘Münchner Abkommen’ (‘Munich Agreement’)

06 October 1938

Declaration of Slovak autonomy, 6 October 1938

02 November 1938

Hungary’s Territory Is Revised after the First Vienna Award (November 2, 1938)

08 November 1938

8-10 November: Organised pogroms against the German Jewish population

The Second World War

01 January 1939

Final solution on Czech territory, ghetto and camps (1939-1945)

01 January 1939

Foreign resistance and interim state system (1939-1945)

01 February 1939

Poles fight on fronts of the Second World War 1939-1945

14 March 1939

Establishment of the Slovak State, 14 March 1939

15 March 1939

Occupation of the republic and establishment of Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (1939)

23 August 1939

23 August: Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

23 August 1939

23 August: Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact concluded by the Third Reich and USSR

01 September 1939

Entry of Slovakia into the war against Poland, 1 September 1939

01 September 1939

1 September: German invasion

01 September 1939

1 September: Germany begins the Second World War with its invasion of Poland

01 September 1939

September: Poland assaulted from both sides

10 April 1940

April 1940: Katyn massacre

22 June 1941

Third Reich invades the USSR and Japan invades the US

22 June 1941

22 June: With the invasion of the Soviet Union, Hitler starts the racist war of extermination for ‘Lebensraum im Osten’ (‘Lebensraum in the East’)

26 June 1941

Unidentified Aircraft Bomb Košice: Hungary Enters World War II (June 26, 1941)

01 January 1942

Wannsee Conference

20 January 1942

20 January: Meeting of the so-called ‘Wannsee-Konferenz’ (‘Wannsee Conference’)

25 March 1942

The deportation of Slovak Jews begins, 25 March 1942

27 May 1942

Assassination of Reinhard Heydrich and subsequent terror (1942)

02 July 1942

Establishment of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Arts, 2 July 1942

12 January 1943

The Hungarian Second Army Is Annihilated at the Don River (January 12, 1943)

19 April 1943

19 April: Uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto

19 March 1944

Germany Occupies Hungary (March 19, 1944)

20 July 1944

20 July: Conspirators linked with Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg attempt to overthrow the Nazi dictatorship

01 August 1944

1 August – 3 October: Warsaw Uprising

29 August 1944

Military uprising in Slovakia, 29 August 1944

15 October 1944

Ferenc Szálasi Announces Continuation of War on Side of Germany (October 15, 1944)

Communism

27 January 1945

27 January: Auschwitz is liberated by Soviet troops

04 February 1945

4-11 February: Yalta conference

04 April 1945

The first governmental programme of renewed Czechoslovakia, 5 April 1945

04 April 1945

A Soviet Announcement Declares the Occupation of Hungary’s Territory

07 May 1945

7-8 May: Capitulation of the German ‘Wehrmacht’ Armed Forces

08 May 1945

Liberation of Czechoslovakia and the end of the Second World War in Europe (1945)

08 May 1945

8 May: Second World War ends

17 June 1945

June: Trial of the Sixteen

02 August 1945

Post-war transfer of Germans and economic consequences (1945-1946)

26 May 1946

National Front Government, last democratic elections, refusal of the Marshall Plan (1945-1947)

26 May 1946

Parliamentary election, 26 May 1946

01 August 1946

The Forint Is Introduced (August 1, 1946)

01 October 1946

1 October: Delivery of judgements against the main war criminals in the Nürnberger Prozess (Nuremberg Trials)

10 February 1947

Hungary Signs the Peace Treaty of Paris (February 10, 1947)

01 June 1947

Marshall Plan

01 June 1947

June 1, 1947: Communists Take Over after Ousting Prime Minister Ferenc Nagy

25 February 1948

Democracy ends, Communists take power, and development of socialism (1948-1950)

25 February 1948

February state coup d´état, 25 February 1948

30 May 1948

Parliamentary election with a united list of candidates, 30 May 1948

10 December 1948

Culture and art in Czechoslovakia under Socialism (1948-1989)

01 April 1949

Communist victory in China and establishment of NATO

24 May 1949

24 May: Proclamation of the ‘Grundgesetzes der Bundesrepublik Deutschland’ (‘Constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany’)

20 August 1949

Hungary’s Stalinist Constitution Comes into Effect (August 20, 1949)

07 October 1949

7 October: The ‘Deutsche Demokratische Republik’ (DDR) ‘German Democratic Republic’ (GDR)] is established

27 June 1950

Communistic repressions in the 1950s, engagement in the Eastern bloc (1948-1959)

15 January 1951

Court trial of catholic bishops 15 January 1951

05 March 1953

Stalin’s death and armistice in Korea

17 June 1953

17 June: The People’s Uprising in East Berlin and the GDR is violently suppressed

04 July 1953

Prime Minister Imre Nagy Calls for “New Stage” Politics (July 4, 1953)

25 November 1953

The Hungarian National Football Team Defeats Great Britain at Wembley, 6:3 (November 25, 1953)

04 June 1954

4 July: Germany becomes football world champions for the first time

04 July 1954

World Championship and the Geneva spirit

14 May 1955

14 May: Warsaw Pact established

28 June 1956

June 1956: Poznań protests

23 October 1956

Hungarian Revolution and Suez crisis. New global offensive of the USSR

23 October 1956

The Hungarian Revolution Breaks Out in Budapest (October 23, 1956)

04 November 1956

The Soviet Army Launches Its Invasion to Suppress the Hungarian Revolution (November 4, 1956)

01 January 1960

The year of Africa and deceleration of the USSR’s global offensive

13 August 1961

13 August: Building of the Berlin Wall

24 October 1962

Cuban crisis

23 January 1963

23 January: Konrad Adenauer and Charles de Gaulle sign the ‘German-French Treaty of Friendship’

21 March 1963

János Kádár Proclaims General Amnesty (March 21, 1963)

03 May 1966

3 May: festive observance of the millennial anniversary of Poland’s baptism

02 June 1967

2 June: The death of the student Benno Ohnesorg

27 June 1967

Beginning of the Prague Spring and renewal process (1960-1968)

01 September 1967

First year of the international Biennial of Illustration Bratislava 5 September 1967

01 January 1968

Peak of the sexual revolution in the West and the end of “Prague Spring”

01 January 1968

The “New Economic Mechanism” Is Implemented (January 1, 1968)

05 January 1968

Start of renewal process, 5 January 1968

08 March 1968

March 1968 events

21 August 1968

Occupation of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact troops (1968)

21 August 1968

Invasion of Warsaw Pact troops, 20 – 21 August 1968

27 October 1968

Act on the Federalization of Czechoslovakia, 27 October 1968

17 April 1969

Normalization and real socialism (1969-1989)

17 April 1969

Gustáv Husák leads the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, 17 April 1969

28 October 1969

28 October: Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt leads the first social-liberal coalition

19 June 1970

Preparatory meeting of the Slovak World Congress, 19 – 21 June 1970

07 December 1970

7 December Willy Brandt’s ‘Kniefall von Warschau’ (Brandt kneels before a Holocaust monument in Warsaw)

14 December 1970

December 1970 protests

01 January 1973

End of the economic boom

01 August 1975

Around the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe

25 June 1976

June: workers on strike in Radom and Ursus (June’76)

17 October 1977

Night of 17 into 18 October: Suicide of RAF terrorists Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe in the Stuttgart-Stammheim jail

25 December 1977

Illyés”s Article on Hungarians Living Beyond National Borders Is Published (December 25, 1977)

16 October 1978

16 October: Cardinal Karol Wojtyła becomes pope and assumes the name of John Paul II

16 October 1978

Pontificate of John Paul II

01 December 1979

End of the détente

01 January 1980

Reforms begin in China and “Solidarność” is born

17 September 1980

Establishment of the Independent Self-Governing Trade Union ‘Solidarność’

13 December 1981

13 December: Martial law imposed

13 December 1981

The First Issue of Samizdat Publication, Beszélő [Speaker], Appears (December 13, 1981)

01 January 1983

At the brink of war

29 March 1983

29 March: Entry of the ‘Grünen’ (‘Greens’) into the German Bundestag

25 March 1988

Candle demonstration, 25 March 1988

Transformation

01 April 1989

Fall of communism in Poland

11 September 1989

Hungary Opens Its Border to Austria (September 11, 1989)

01 October 1989

Fall of communist regimes In East-Central Europe

09 November 1989

9 November: Opening of the Berlin Wall and the border between the Federal Republic of Germany and the GDR

16 November 1989

Spontaneous demonstration by Bratislava university students for basic civil rights and freedoms, 16 November 1989

17 November 1989

Velvet revolution, fall of the totalitarian system, return of democracy and freedom (1989)

29 December 1989

Communist dissident and democratic president Václav Havel (1936-2011)

25 March 1990

The First Free Elections Are Held (March 25, 1990)

03 October 1990

3 October: Reunification of Germany

19 June 1991

The Last Soviet Soldier Leaves Hungary’s Territory (June 19, 1991)

26 December 1991

Dissolution of the USSR and German reunification

01 January 1993

Transformation, break-up of Czechoslovakia, the origin of a separate Czech Republic (1990-2003)

01 January 1993

Establishment of an independent Slovak Republic, 1 January 1993

12 March 1999

Czech Republic joins NATO and the EU (1999-2004)

12 March 1999

12 March: Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary become NATO members

12 March 1999

Expansion of NATO

12 March 1999

Hungary Becomes a Member State of NATO (March 12, 1999)